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Media Coverage
Popular Articles, Trade Press, Media Advisories, Newsletters
Videos
Technical Publications
Best-Practice Summaries
Benchmarking Results
Training/Workshops
Presentations
Design Resources
Committees

* = funded or co-funded by the California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program

Media Coverage

  • Media coverage on this project is compiled here.

Popular Articles, Trade Press, Media Advisories, Newsletters

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Videos

Technical Publications

2012

  • Coles, H., S. Greenberg (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) and C. Vita (Vigilent) 2012. "Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers", Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL-6007e. November [PDF]
  • Coles, H., and S. Greenberg. 2012. "Data Center Economizer Cooling with Tower Water", California Energy Commission. Publication number: CEC-500-2012-XXX, PIR-10-013. Report [PDF]; Presentation [PDF]
  • Delforge, P., W.F. Tschudi, J. Dickerson, H.Y. Cheung, R. Mahdavi, S. Greenberg, and R.E. Brown. 2012. "Fact Sheet: Improving Energy Efficiency for Server Rooms and Closets" Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. LBNL-xxxxx. September. 3-page Fact Sheet [PDF]; Full-length Fact Sheet [PDF]

2011

  • Hughes, P., W. Tschudi, "Energy Efficient and Lower Capital Cost — an Alternative Data Center Cooling Strategy", Conference Paper presented at ASHRAE Summer Conference, 2011, Montreal, Canada [PDF]
  • Coles, H.C., Han, T., Price, P.N., Gadgil, A.J. and Tschudi, W.F., March 2011 Rev., "Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers", Department of Energy (EERE) [PDF]
  • Coles, H.C., T. Han, P.N. Price, A.J. Gadgil, and W.F. Tschudi (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2011. "Air-Side Economizer Cooling Is Safe for Most California Data Centers". California Energy Commission. Publication number: CEC-500-2010-XXX. [PDF]
  • Coles, Henry C. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Bramfitt, Mark (Mark Bramfitt Consulting Services). 2011. "Modular/Container Data Center Procurement Guide: Optimizing for Energy Efficiency and Quick Deployment" United States General Services Administration. Publication number: XXXX-XXX. [PDF]

2010

  • Coles, Henry C. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2010. "Evaluation of Rack-Mounted Computer Equipment Cooling Solutions." California Energy Commission. Publication number: CEC-XXX-2010-XXX. [PDF]
  • Coles, Henry C. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2010. "Demonstration of Alternative Cooling for Rack-Mounted Computer Equipment." California Energy Commission. Publication number: CEC-500-2010-XXX. [P W. TschudiDF]
  • Han, T., A. Shehabi, H. Coles, W. Tschudi, A. Gadgil, J. Stein. 2010. "Should Data Center Owners be Afraid of Air-side Economizer Use? — A Review of ASHRAE TC 9.9 White Paper titled Gaseous and Particulate Contamination Guidelines for Data Centers". [PDF]

2009

2008

  • E Source. 2008. "DC Power Distribution Cuts Data Center Energy Use." PIER Buildings Technical Brief, October, 2pp.
  • Shehabi, A., S. Ganguly, S.K. Traber, H. Price, A. Horvath, W.M. Nazaroff, and A.J. Gadgl. 2008. "Energy Implications of Economizer Use in California Data Centers." Proceedings of the 2008 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar, CA. [PDF]
  • Shehabi, A., A. Horvath, W. Tschudi, A.J. Gadgil, and W. W. Nazaroff. 2008. "Particle Concentrations in Data Centers." Atmospheric Environment 42:5978-5990. [PDF]
  • Mills, E., P. Mathew, N. Bourassa, M. Brook, and M.A. Piette. 2008. "Action-Oriented Benchmarking: Concepts and Tools." Energy Engineering, Volume 105, Number 4, pp. 21-40. LBNL-358E. [PDF]
  • Mathew, P., E. Mills, N. Bourassa, M. Brook. 2008. "Action-Oriented Benchmarking: Using the CEUS Database to Benchmark Commercial Buildings in California." Energy Engineering, Volume 105, Number 5, pp. 6-18. LBNL-502E. [PDF]

2007

  • Mills, E., G. Shamshoian, M. Blazek, P. Naughton, R.S. Seese, E. Mills, W. Tschudi, and D. Sartor. 2007. "The Business Case for Energy Management in High-Tech Industries." Energy Efficiency, 1(1). DOI 10.1007/s12053-007-9000-8. [PDF]
  • Faulkner, D., D. DiBartolomeo, and D. Wang. 2007. "Demand Controlled Filtration in an Industrial Cleanroom." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report No. 63420. [PDF]
  • Sartor, D. 2007. "Automatic Fume Hood Sash Closure." Prepared for PG&E. [PDF]
  • US EPA. 2007. Report to Congress on Server and Data Center Energy Efficiency : Public Law 109-431. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ENERGY STAR Program. August 2. [PDF]
  • Mathew, P. 2007. "Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories." Labs 21 Best Practice Guide. October. [PDF]
  • Mathew, P. 2007. "Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories." Labs 21 Technical Bulletin. September 12. [PDF]
  • Mathew, P. and K. Williams. 2007. "LEED for Labs: Review and Outlook." R&D 2007 Laboratory Design Handbook. LBNL-63190 [PDF]
  • Amon, D., T. Smith, P. Mathew, and O. VanGeet. 2007. "System Static Pressure Optimization." Labs 21 Best Practices Guide. February. LBNL-63038 [PDF]
  • Carlisle, N. 2007. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies - Molecular Foundry, Berkeley, California. Published by Labs21, U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. [PDF]
  • Mathew, P., D. Sartor, G. Bell, and D. Drummond. "Major Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Laboratories – Implications for Health and Safety," Journal of Chemical Health and Safety, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp 31-39. September/October 2007. LBNL-62185. [PDF]
  • Chen, J-J., C-H Lan, M-S. Jeng, and T. Xu. 2007. "The Development of Fan Filter Unit with Flow Rate Feedback Control in a Cleanroom." Building and Environment, 42:3556-3561. [PDF]
  • Xu, T. 2007. "Characterization of Minienvironments in a Clean Room: Design Characteristics and Environmental Performance." Building and Environment, 42:2993–3000. [PDF]
  • Xu, T., C-H. Lan, and M-S. Jeng. 2007. "Performance of Large Fan-filter Units for Cleanroom Applications." Building and Environment, 42: 2299–2304. [PDF]
  • Xu, T. 2007. "Standard Methods of Characterizing Performance of Fan Filter Units: Version 3.0." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report No. 62118. [PDF]
  • Xu, T. 2007. "An Innovative Method for Dynamic Characterization of Fan Filter Unit Operation." Journal of the IEST, V. 50, No. 2 C 2007 [PDF]
  • Shehabi, A., W. Tschudi, and A. Gadgil. 2007. "Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidification Study." [PDF]
  • Koomey, J. 2007. "Estimating Total Power Consumption by Servers in the U.S. and the World." (This report was produced by LBNL project scientist Jonathan Koomey as a consulting project for AMD.  It is not an LBNL report.) [PDF]

2006

  • LBNL and Rumsey Engineers. 2006. "Data Center Air Management Report." Prepared for Pacific Gas and Electric Company. [PDF]
  • Ton, M., B. Fortenbery, and W. Tschudi. 2007. "DC Power for Improved Data Center Efficiency," Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report. [PDF]
  • Blazek, M. and J. Koomey. 2006. "Predicting Future Power Requirements for the IT Sector: Making the Case for Including Life-Cycle Implications in Design of Servers." In Proceedings of the IEEE. International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, IEEE.
  • Xu, T. 2006. "A Study on the Operation Performance of a Minienvironment System," Journal of the IEST, Vol 49, No 1, pp. 63-71. [PDF]
  • Greenberg, S., W. Tschudi, and J. Weale. 2006. LBNL "Self-Benchmarking Guide for Data Center Energy Performance (Version 1.0)" [PDF]
  • Rumsey Engineers and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 2006. "High Performance Cleanrooms: A Design Guideline Sourcebook." Part of Energy Design Resources collection. [PDF]
  • Rumsey Engineers and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 2006. "High Performance Data Centers: A Design Guideline Sourcebook." Part of the Energy Design Resources collection. [PDF]
  • Greenberg, S., E. Mills, B. Tschudi, P. Rumsey, and B. Myatt. 2006. "Best Practices for Data Centers: Results from Benchmarking 22 Data Centers." Proceedings of the 2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. [PDF]
  • ASHRAE. 2006. "Design Considerations for Data and Communications Equipment Centers." American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Technical Committee 9.9. (Chapter 13 deals directly with energy efficiency).

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2005

  • Exposure Control Technologies, Inc. 2005. "'Side by Side' Fume Hood Tests Using ASHRAE 110 and 'Human As Mannequin' (HAM) Test Methodology to Compare Performance of a Jamestown Conventional Fume Hood and a LBNL High Performance Hood." Final Report (March 21). [PDF]
  • Ecos Consulting and EPRI Solutions. 2005. "High Performance Buildings: Data Centers — Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)." [PDF]
  • Ecos Consulting and EPRI Solutions. 2005. "High-Performance Buildings: Data Centers — Server Power Supplies." [PDF]
  • Shanshoian, G., M. Blazek, P. Naughton, R.S. Seese, E. Mills, and W. Tschudi. 2005. "High-Tech Means High-Efficiency: The Business Case for Energy Management in High-Tech Industries." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report. [PDF]
  • Mathew, P., S. Greenberg, D. Frenze, M. Morehead, D. Sartor, and W. Starr. 2005. "Right-sizing Laboratory HVAC systems: Part 1." HPAC Engineering, September. [PDF]
  • Mathew, P., S. Greenberg, D. Frenze, M. Morehead, D. Sartor, and W. Starr. 2005. "Right-sizing Laboratory HVAC systems: Part 2." HPAC Engineering, October. [PDF]
  • Tschudi, W.T., D. Faulkner, and A. Hebert. 2005. "Energy Efficiency Strategies for Cleanrooms without Compromising Environmental Conditions." ASHRAE Transactions, DE-05-9-1 10pp. [PDF]
  • Koomey, G.K., O.Sezgen, and R. Steinmetz. 2005. "Estimating Total Power Used by Data Centers in California."* [PDF]
  • Xu, T. 2005. "Laboratory Method of Testing Energy Performance of Fan-Filter Units, Version 1.3".* [PDF]
  • Mills, E. and D. Sartor. 2005. "Energy Use and Savings Potential for Laboratory Fume Hoods." LBNL-55400. Energy 30:1859-1864.
  • Xu., T. 2005. "Investigating the Performance of a Minienvironment System." Presentation at Contamination Control Technical Session, The 51st ESTECH Conference May 1-4, 2005, Hyatt Regency Woodfield, Schaumburg, Illinois, The Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST). Technical paper published in the Proceedings of The 51st ESTECH Conference. [PDF]

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2004

  • Mills, E., H. Friedman, T. Powell, N. Bourassa, D. Claridge, T. Haasl, and M.A. Piette. 2004. "The Cost-Effectiveness of Commercial Buildings Commissioning: A Meta-Analysis of Energy and Non-Energy Impacts in Existing Buildings and New Construction in the United States." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report No.56637 [includes case studies for laboratory-type facilities]
  • Wirdzek, P, W. Lintner, P. Mathew, and N. Carlisle. 2004. "Energy Efficiency Programs for Niche Markets: The Labs21 Program as an Exemplar," Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. [PDF]
  • Mathew, P., D. Sartor, O V. Geet, and S. Reilly. 2004. "Rating Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Laboratories: Results and Lessons from the Labs21 Program," Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. [PDF]
  • Crabtree, P. N. Kyriakopedi, E. Mills, P. Haves, R.J. Otto, M.A. Piette, P Xu, R.C. Diamond, J. Deringer, and C. Frost. 2004. "Developing a Next-Generation Community College Curriculum for Energy-Efficient High-Performance Building Operations." Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C.
  • Foster, S. 2004. "If We're Only Snoozing, We're Losing: Opportunities to Save Energy by Improving the Active Mode Efficiency of Consumer Electronics and Office Equipment" Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C.
  • Bell, G. and D. Sartor. 2004. "Side-by-Side Fume Hood Testing: ASHRAE 110 Containment Report — Comparison of a Conventional and a Berkeley Fume Hood." LBID-2560. [PDF]
  • Bell, G. and D. Sartor. 2004. "Side-by-Side Fume Hood Testing: Human-as-Mannequin Report — Comparison of a Conventional and a Berkeley Fume Hood." LBID-2561 [PDF]
  • Jeng, Ming-Shan, T. Xu, and Chao-Ho Lan. 2004. "Toward Green Systems for Cleanrooms: Energy Efficient Fan FIlter Units." Proceedings of SEMI Technology Symposium: Innovations in Semiconductor Manufacturing, SEMICON West 2004. San Francisco (July) pp 73-77. LBNL-55039.* [PDF]
  • Tschudi,W.F. and P. Rumsey. 2004. "Using Benchmarking to Identify Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Cleanrooms: The Labs21 Approach" ASHRAE Symposium.* [PDF]
  • Galitsky, C., S-C Chang, and E. Worrell. 2004. "Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers." Input provided by the A-Team.
  • Jeng, Ming-Shan, T. Xu, and C-H Lan. 200. "Towards Green Systems for Cleanrooms: Energy Efficient Fan Filter Units." Proceedings 2004 Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, SEMICON West. LBNL-55039.* [PDF]
  • Jeng, M-S. and T. Xu. 2004. "Laboratory Evaluation of Fan-filter Units' Aerodynamic and Energy Performance." LBNL-54250.* [PDF]
  • Blazek, M., H. Chong, W. Loh, and J. Koomey. 2004. "Data Centers Revisited: Assessment of the Energy Impacts of Retrofits and Technology Trends in a High-density Computing Facility." The ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems. 10 (3): 98-104. [PDF]
  • Koomey, J, H. Chong, W. Loh, B. Nordman, and M. Blazek. 2004. "Network Electricity Use Associated with Wireless Personal Digital Assistants." The ASCE Journal of Infrastructure Systems. 10 (3): 131-137. LBNL-54105. [PDF]

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2003

  • Mitchell-Jackson, J., J. Koomey, B. Nordman, and M. Blazek. 2003. "Data Center Power Requirements: Measurements From Silicon Valley." Energy-The International Journal 28 (8): 837 - 850. LBNL-48554. [PDF]
  • Tschudi, W.F., P. Sreedharan, T. Xu, D. Coup, and P. Roggensack. 2003. "Data Centers and Energy Use - Let's Look at the Data." ACEEE Conference Paper. [PDF]
  • Tschudi, W.F., Xu, D. Sartor, and D. Stein. 2003. "High Performance Data Centers: A Research Roadmap". LBNL-53483.* [PDF]
  • Placet, M., D. Winiarski, J. Heerwagen, S. Shankle, K. McMordie-Stoughton, K. Fowler, J. Hail, B. Liu, D. Hunt, D. Hostick, K. Poston, A. Walker, J. Harris, W. Tschudi, E. Mills, D. Zimmerman, J. Fiksel, and J. Toothaker. 2003. "The Business Case for Sustainable Design in Federal Facilities." U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Management Program.
  • Mathew, P., G. Bell, N. Carlisle, N., D. Sartor, O. van Geet, W. Lintner, P. Wirdzek. 2003. "Supporting Integrated Design through Interlinked Tools: The Labs21 Toolkit", Proceedings of Greenbuild '03, Pittsburgh, Nov 12-14. U.S. Green Building Council. [PDF]
  • Bell, G.C. and P. Matthes. 2003. "An Operational Envelope Study - 2002." Progress Report and Research Status for the California Energy Commission. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. [PDF]

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2002

  • Mitchell-Jackson, J., J. Koomey, M. Blazek, and B. Nordman. 2002. "National and Regional Implications of Internet Data Center Growth." Resources, Conservation, and Recycling 36 (3): 175-185. LBNL-50534. [PDF]
  • Bell, G., D. Sartor, and E. Mills. 2002. "High Performance Fume Hood Field Test Results and Research Agenda." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.* [PDF]
  • Xu, T. and W. Tschudi. 2002. "Energy Performance of Cleanroom Environmental Systems." Proceedings of the 48th Annual Technical Meeting and Exposition of the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ESTECH), April 28-May 1, 2002, Anaheim, CA. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report No. LBNL-49106. [PDF]
  • Tschudi, W.F., D. Sartor, E. Mills, and T. Xiu. 2002. "High-Performance Laboratories and Cleanrooms: A Technology Roadmap." LBNL-50599.* [PDF]
  • Harris, J., W.F. Tschudi, and B. Dyer. 2002. "Securing Buildings and Saving Energy: Opportunities in the Federal Sector." The Austin Papers: Best of the 2002 International Green Building Conference, Compiled by Environmental Building News, p. 63-67
  • Mills, E., D. Abell, G. Bell, J. Faludi, S. Greenberg, R. Hitchcock, M.A. Piette, D. Sartor, and K. Stum. 2002. "Design Intent Tool: User Guide." LBNL/PUB-3167.*
  • Mathew, P., D. Sartor, W. Lintner, P. Wirdzek. 2002. "Labs21 Environmental Performance Criteria: Toward LEED for Labs", The Austin Papers, Best of the 2002 International Green Building Conference, Building Green, Austin, TX. [PDF]

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2001

  • Mitchell-Jackson, J. 2001. "Energy Needs in an Internet Economy: A Closer Look at Data Centers." Masters Thesis. Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley. [PDF]
  • Xu, T., W. Tschudi, G. Bell, and D. Sartor. 2001. "High-Tech Buildings Market Transformation Project: Cleanroom Energy Benchmarking, High-Performance Fume Hood Demonstration/Test, Market Transformation Activities: Final Report to CIEE and PG&E." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Report No. 49112. [PDF]
  • Bell, G., D. Sartor, and E. Mills. 2001. "Development and Commercialization of a High-Performance Laboratory Fume Hood." LBNL-48983 (rev.)*
  • Bell, G., D. Sartor, and E. Mills. 2001. "High-Performance Laboratory Fume Hood Field Test at the University of California, San Francisco". LBID-2396.*
  • Tschudi, W., K. Benschine, S. Fok, and P. Rumsey. 2001. "Cleanroom Energy Benchmarking in High-Tech and Biotech Industries." Proceedings of the 2001 ACEEE Industrial Conference (July 21).* [PDF]
  • Xu, T., W.F. Tschudi, G. Bell, E. Mills, and D. Sartor. 2001. "High-Tech Buildings Market Transformation Project." LBNL-49112.* [PDF]
  • Tschudi, W.F., D. Sartor, and T. Xu. "An Energy-Efficiency Guide for use in Cleanroom Programming." LBNL-49223. [PDF]

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Before 2001

  • Sartor, D., M.A. Piette, and W. Tschudi. 2000. "Strategies for Energy Benchmarking in Cleanrooms and Laboratory-Type Facilities." Proceedings of the 2000 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. [PDF]
  • Faulkner, D., W.J. Fisk, and J.T. Walton. 1996. "Energy Savings in Cleanrooms with Demand-controlled Filtration" LBNL-38869. [PDF]
  • Meyers, S., E. Mills, A. Chen, and L. Demsetz. 1996. "Building Data Visualization for Diagnostics, Operator Feedback, and Performance Optimization." ASHRAE Journal, June, pp. 63-73. [PDF]
  • Bell, G., E. Mills, D. Sartor, D. Avery, M. Siminovitch, and M.A. Piette. 1996. "Energy Design Guide for Research Laboratories." Prepared for the California Institute for Energy Efficiency. LBNL-38487. 
  • Mills, E., G. Bell, D. Sartor, A. Chen, D. Avery, M. Siminovitch, S. Greenberg, G. Marton, A. de Almeida, and L.E. Lock. 1996. "Energy Efficiency in California Laboratory-Type Facilities." Prepared for the California Institute for Energy Efficiency. LBNL-39061.
  • Greenberg, S., E. Mills, D. Lockhart, D. Sartor, and W. Lintner. 1996. "The U.S. Department of Energy's In-House Energy Management Program: Meeting the Challenges of Federal Energy Management." Energy Engineering 93 (2), pp 55-75. (Also in the Proceedings of the 1994 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, pp. 9.129-9.136.)

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Best-Practice Summaries

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Benchmarking Results

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Training/Workshops/Curriculum

  • See the Labs 21 Training (Labs21 website)
  • Trainings given by LBNL staff:
    • December 6, 2005: The Business Case for Commercial Buildings Commissioning, PG&E Pacific Energy Center, San Francisco, CA [E. Mills]* [PDF]
    • April 7, 2005: Minienvironment: Best Practices for Energy Efficient Design, Construction and Operation -- T. Xu -- San Diego, CA]*
    • June 21-22, 2004: Building Confidence: From Sustainable Policy to Practice [Toward LEED™ for Labs Workshop - Mathew - UC Santa Barbara, CA]. Labs21 Training.
    • June 21-22, 2004: Building Confidence: From Sustainable Policy to Practice [Labs21 High-Performance/Low-Energy Design Course - Sartor and Mathew - UC Santa Barbara, CA]. Labs21 Training.
    • July 14, 2004: PG&E-sponsored 2.5 hour cleanroom energy efficiency seminar for semiconductor facilities. The seminar will be held at the PEC (851 Howard Street, btw 4th and 5th in SF) and has been scheduled to coincide with the 2004 Semicon West Conference, which will be held at the Moscone Center just one block away from the PEC.*
    • August 23, 2004: ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings ["What's So Special about High-tech Buildings? A review and discussion of energy efficiency programs for laboratories and cleanrooms" - Sartor- Asilomar, CA]. Workshop.*
    • Tschudi, W. 2004. "Cleanroom Air Systems Design." To be presented at San Diego Gas & Electric Company, June 22.* [PPT]
    • Crabtree, P. N. Kyriakopedi, E. Mills, P. Haves, R.J. Otto, M.A. Piette, P Xu, R.C. Diamond, J. Deringer, and C. Frost. 2004. "Developing a Next-Generation Community College Curriculum for Energy-Efficient High-Performance Building Operations." Proceedings of the 2004 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Asilomar, CA August (preprint).
  • Labs21 Training & Education site

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Presentations

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Design Resources

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Technical and Professional Committees

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